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This justification has been rejected by the United Nations and the international community. The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions in Cyprus, and hundreds of paratroopers were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established; while off the Kyrenia coast, Turkish troop ships landed 6, men as well as tanks, trucks and armoured vehicles.
Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed,  Turkey had landed 30, troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish Cypriot quarter of Nicosia itself.
In Nicosia, Glafkos Clerides assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored, removing the pretext for the Turkish invasion.
Among a variety of sanctions against Turkey, in mid the US Congress imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using American-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in After the restoration of constitutional order and the return of Archbishop Makarios III to Cyprus in December , Turkish troops remained, occupying the northeastern portion of the island.
The events of the summer of dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around , settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north—many of whom were forced from Turkey by the Turkish government—in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions.
The Turkish invasion, the ensuing occupation and the declaration of independence by the TRNC have been condemned by United Nations resolutions, which are reaffirmed by the Security Council every year.
The plan was put to a referendum in both Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. On 1 May Cyprus joined the European Union, together with nine other countries.
In July , the island served as a haven for people fleeing Lebanon, due to the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah also called " The July War ".
Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. In April , Northern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years.
Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia both in terms of area and population.
It is also the world's 80th largest by area and world's 51st largest by population. The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range , and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria.
The Mesaoria plain is drained by the Pedieos River , the longest on the island. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area.
The island lies within the Anatolian Plate. Geopolitically , the island is subdivided into four main segments. The Republic of Cyprus occupies the southern two-thirds of the island The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus occupies the northern third Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia , covering the remaining 2.
Cyprus has a subtropical climate — Mediterranean and semi-arid type in the north-eastern part of the island — Köppen climate classifications Csa and BSh ,   with very mild winters on the coast and warm to hot summers.
Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry.
Cyprus has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean part of the European Union. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare.
Inland temperatures are more extreme, with colder winters and hotter summers compared with the coast of the island. Sunshine hours on the coast are around 3, per year, from an average of 5—6 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12—13 hours in July.
Cyprus suffers from a chronic shortage of water. The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water, but in the past 30 years average yearly precipitation has decreased.
However, since then demand has increased annually — a result of local population growth, foreigners moving to Cyprus and the number of visiting tourists — while supply has fallen as a result of more frequent droughts.
The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 per cent of domestic water since Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity.
Turkey has built a water pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea from Anamur on its southern coast to the northern coast of Cyprus, to supply Northern Cyprus with potable and irrigation water see Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project.
Cyprus is a presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of universal suffrage for a five-year term.
Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.
The Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots.
The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice-president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions.
Legislative power rested on the House of Representatives who were also elected on the basis of separate voters' rolls.
Since , following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. In Cyprus was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island.
The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but were recognised only by Turkey.
In the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the entire island of Cyprus.
The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five-year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian , Latin and Maronite minorities.
In , Dimitris Christofias became the country's first Communist head of state. Due to his involvement in the —13 Cypriot financial crisis , Christofias did not run for re-election in The Presidential election in resulted in Democratic Rally candidate Nicos Anastasiades winning As a result, Anastasiades was sworn in on and has been President since 28 February The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: Cyprus has four exclaves , all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia.
The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station , which is divided by a British road into two parts.
The northern part is the EAC refugee settlement. The southern part, even though located by the sea, is also an exclave because it has no territorial waters of its own, those being U.
The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor.
In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto , though not de jure , exclave.
The Republic of Cyprus is a member of the following international groups: The Cyprus Police Greek: Hadjisavvas has asserted that these actions are motivated by a Turkish policy of erasing the Greek presence in Northern Cyprus within a framework of ethnic cleansing, as well as by greed and profit-seeking on the part of the individuals involved.
It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. Historically all men were required to spend 24 months serving in the National Guard after their 17th birthday, but in this period of compulsory service was reduced to 14 months.
The Cypriot National Guard comprises the following units:. In the early 21st century the Cypriot economy has diversified and become prosperous.
The — Cypriot financial crisis led to an agreement with the Eurogroup in March to split the country's second largest bank, the Cyprus Popular Bank also known as Laiki Bank , into a "bad" bank which would be wound down over time and a "good" bank which would be absorbed by the Bank of Cyprus.
Tourism, financial services and shipping are significant parts of the economy. Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union.
The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January Turkey , which does not recognise the border agreements of Cyprus with its neighbours,  threatened to mobilise its naval forces if Cyprus proceeded with plans to begin drilling at Block Because of the heavy influx of tourists and foreign investors, the property rental market in Cyprus has grown in recent years.
Available modes of transport are by road, sea and air. A series of motorways runs along the coast from Paphos east to Ayia Napa, with two motorways running inland to Nicosia, one from Limassol and one from Larnaca.
Per capita private car ownership is the 29th-highest in the world. In the new bus network was implemented. Cyprus has several heliports and two international airports: A third airport, Ercan International Airport , operates in the Turkish Cypriot administered area with direct flights only to Turkey Turkish Cypriot ports are closed to international traffic apart from Turkey.
Nicosia International Airport has been closed since The main harbours of the island are Limassol and Larnaca , which service cargo, passenger and cruise ships.
Cyta , the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island.
In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three different companies are present: According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of ,; of whom , Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between and , an island-wide census was regarded as impossible.
Nevertheless, the Cypriot government conducted one in , without the Turkish Cypriot populace. One year later, in , the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the total population of Cyprus at ,; of whom , According to the Republic of Cyprus's latest estimate, in , the number of Cypriot citizens currently living in the Republic of Cyprus is around , In addition to this, the Republic of Cyprus is home to , foreign permanent residents  and an estimated 10,—30, undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island.
According to the census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were , de jure people living in Northern Cyprus. Of the , citizens born in Cyprus, , say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16, say both parents born in Turkey; 10, have one parent born in Turkey and one parent born in Cyprus.
In , the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Cyprus was 1. The villages of Rizokarpaso only one in the north , Potamia Nicosia district and Pyla Larnaca District are the only settlements remaining with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population.
Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus: According to Eurobarometer ,  Cyprus was the second most religious state in the European Union at that time, after Malta although in Romania wasn't in the European Union; currently Romania is the most religious state in the European Union see Religion in the European Union.
Hala Sultan Tekke , situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake , is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam   and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims  and Christians.
According to the census carried out in the Government-controlled area,  There is also a Jewish community on Cyprus. Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish.
Russian, after English and Greek, is the third language used on many signs of shops and restaurants, particularly in Limassol and Paphos.
Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions.
Cypriot universities like universities in Greece ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take.
The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots share a lot in common in their culture but also have differences.
Several traditional food such as souvla and halloumi and beverages are similar, as well as expressions and ways of life.
Hospitality and buying or offering food and drinks for guests or others are common among both. In both communities, music, dance and art are integral parts of social life and many artistic, verbal and nonverbal expressions, traditional dances such as tsifteteli , similarities in dance costumes and importance placed on social activities are shared between the communities.
The event which is very popular in Cyprus was introduced in the 20th century. The art history of Cyprus can be said to stretch back up to 10, years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa.
Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination — In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides — who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice.
In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England  while others train at art schools in Greece and local art institutions such as the Cyprus College of Art , University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology.
One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art "institutions" and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre.
Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene.
Cyprus was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia.
The traditional folk music of Cyprus has several common elements with Greek , Turkish , and Arabic Music including Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot dances such as the sousta , syrtos , zeibekikos , tatsia , and karsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired tsifteteli and arapies.
There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations.
The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the violin "fkiolin" , lute "laouto" , accordion , Cyprus flute pithkiavlin , oud "outi" and percussions including the " toumperleki ".
Among musicians is also the acclaimed pianist Cyprien Katsaris and composer and artistic director of the European Capital of Culture initiative Marios Joannou Elia.
Metal also has a small following in Cyprus represented by bands such as Armageddon rev. Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria , an epic poem , probably composed in the late 7th century BC and attributed to Stasinus.
The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry. Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages.
Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Voustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages until the end of Frankish rule 4th century— Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch , Bembo , Ariosto and G.
There is an increasingly strong presence of both temporary and permanent emigre Cypriot writers in world literature, as well as writings by second and third -generation Cypriot writers born or raised abroad, often writing in English.
Examples of Cyprus in foreign literature include the works of Shakespeare, with most of the play Othello by William Shakespeare set on the island of Cyprus.
British writer Lawrence Durrell lived in Cyprus from until , during his time working for the British colonial government on the island, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons about his time in Cyprus which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in The law provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights in practice.
An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press.
The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.
Local television companies in Cyprus include the state owned Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation which runs two television channels. The majority of local arts and cultural programming is produced by the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation and BRT, with local arts documentaries, review programmes and filmed drama series.
The most worldwide known Cypriot director, to have worked abroad, is Michael Cacoyannis. In , Cypriot film production received a boost with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee.
In addition to government grants, Cypriot co-productions are eligible for funding from the Council of Europe 's Eurimages Fund, which finances European film co-productions.
To date, four feature films on which a Cypriot was an executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. It was also the opening film in the Panorama of European Cinema in Athens.
In , the film was nominated for the best film from the Hellenic Film Academy. Only a small number of foreign films have been made in Cyprus.
Halloumi cheese originated in Cyprus   and was initially made during the Medieval Byzantine period.
Seafood and fish dishes include squid, octopus, red mullet , and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads.
Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and taro.
Other traditional delicacies are meat marinated in dried coriander seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza smoked pork loin , charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki pork and chicken cooked over charcoal , and sheftalia minced meat wrapped in mesentery.
Pourgouri bulgur , cracked wheat is the traditional source of carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the delicacy koubes. Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients.
Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra , green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils.
The most common fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines , nectarines, medlar , blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, and hazelnut.
Cyprus is also well known for its desserts, including lokum also known as Turkish Delight and Soutzoukos.
The Cyprus national rugby union team known as The Moufflons currently holds the record for most consecutive international wins, which is especially notable as the Cyprus Rugby Federation was only formed in Tennis player Marcos Baghdatis was ranked 8th in the world, was a finalist at the Australian Open, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final, all in High jumper Kyriakos Ioannou achieved a jump of 2.
He has been ranked third in the world. There is also mixed martial artist Costas Philippou , who competes in the Ultimate Fighting Championship promotion's middleweight division.
They were the only athletes who managed to qualify and thus represented Cyprus at the Winter Olympics. The country's first ever Olympic medal, a silver medal, was won by the sailor Pavlos Kontides , at the Summer Olympics in the Men's Laser class.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Cypress. This article is about the country.
For other uses, see Cyprus disambiguation. Location of Cyprus pictured lower right , showing the Republic of Cyprus in darker green and the self-declared republic of Northern Cyprus in brighter green, with the rest of the European Union shown in faded green.
Cypriot Greek Cypriot Turkish. History of Cyprus and Timeline of Cypriot history. Prehistoric Cyprus and Ancient history of Cyprus.
Cyprus in the Middle Ages and Kingdom of Cyprus. Modern history of Cyprus. Politics of Cyprus and House of Representatives Cyprus.
Districts of Cyprus and List of cities, towns and villages in Cyprus. Foreign relations of Cyprus. The neutrality of this section is disputed.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cyprus Police and Human rights in Cyprus. Transport in Cyprus and Roads and motorways in Cyprus.
The port of Limassol , the busiest in Cyprus. However the post has been vacant since the Turkish invasion in Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 29 January The Revision, DB World Economic Outlook Database, April Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 20 September Human Development Index Trends, ".
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Retrieved 25 October Vajpeyi; Amir Bar-Or The International Law of Occupation. Waging War, Making Peace: Retrieved 27 March There is little data concerning recognition of the 'legal status' of religions in the occupied territories, since any acts of the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' are not recognized by either the Republic of Cyprus or the international community.
The Statehood of Palestine. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.
The occupied territory included 70 percent of the island's economic potential with over 50 percent of the industrial In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus.
The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence UDI as a. Small States in Europe: Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy.
Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus , but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave.
British efforts to secure Turkey's removal from its surrogate territory after failed. An Island in Europe: The EU and the Transformation of Cyprus.
Classified as illegal under international law, and now due to Cyprus' accession into the European Union is also an illegal occupation of EU territory.
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They hoped that the transfer of administration would pave the way for the island to be united with Greece—an aspiration known as "enosis.
Instead, Cyprus was part of a wider political movement [ Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization.
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Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. The Making of Informal States: Statebuilding in Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria. Greek Cypriots engaged in a military campaign for enosis, union with Greece.
Instead, he landed in the middle of the Cypriot civil and anti-colonial war. Foley was widely regarded as a sympathetic character for Cypriots, although he was a firm believer in independence for Cyprus rather than union with Greece.
In , he stated, 'I have sympathy for the Cypriots as a civilized people who have for generations been denied the ordinary rights of self-rule and freedom.
Foley's anti-colonial stance led to him being prosecuted in by the British colonial government in Cyprus for breaking the Emergency Powers Act Cyprus.
Under Foley, the circulation of the newspaper was reported by Time Magazine to be 5, copies. Foley also employed the Armenian journalist Georges der Parthogh from to , who went on to found and edit another English language weekly newspaper, The Cyprus Weekly in According to Foley, the newspaper closed for financial reasons, but its demise was also reported as symbolising the end of British colonial rule in Cyprus.
At the time of its closure, the only surviving English language newspaper was The Cyprus Mail. The title was briefly revived in , by the Turkish Cypriot newspaper, Kibrisli , as an English language supplement, but this was only available in the Turkish areas and ceased publication in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Speirs, Notes from Exile Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p.On 1 May Cyprus joined the European Union, together with nine other countries. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 14 December In Georgakopoulou, Alexandra; Silk, M. Retrieved 31 December One year later, inthe Stargames uber handy spielen government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the total population of Cyprus at ,; of whom Not to be confused with Cypress. Live wette to see schalke gladbach 2019 time in Cyprus compared with your home? Outline Index Category Portal. The violence resulted in the death of Turkish and Greek Cypriots,  destruction of Turkish Cypriot or mixed villages and displacement of 25,—30, Turkish Cypriots. Three historic churches and monasteries are within the city. The first two are the villages of Ormidhia casino andernach rennweg 60 Xylotymvou. Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Beste Spielothek in Hage finden both in terms of area and population.